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Comparative Analysis of Software Maintenance Modeling in the COCOMO II, SEER, SLIM and True S Cost Models

Software & IT Track

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This paper provides a snapshot of the findings, conclusions and recommendations a year-long Joint U.S. Army and Air Force study on the topic of software life cycle maintenance and cost modeling. The paper starts by defining the work that government life cycle support centers typically perform as part of their normal jobs using a Work Breakdown Structure (WBS). Next, the paper rates how well the popular COCOMO II, SEER, SLIM and True S cost models estimate each of the work tasks in this WBS. Gaps uncovered are then highlighted and rules of thumb for filling them are offered as the paper concludes with recommendations for providing fuller coverage for these important operations, maintenance and support activities.


Donald Reifer
Reifer Consultants, Inc.
Donald J. Reifer is recognized as one of the leading figures in the fields of software engineering and management with forty years of progressive management experience in both industry and government. From 1993 to 1995, Mr. Reifer managed the Department of Defense (DoD) Software Initiatives Office under an Intergovernmental Personnel Act (IPA) assignment with the Defense Information Systems Agency. As part of this Senior Executive Service assignment, he served as the Director of the DoD Software Initiatives Office under the ASD/C3I. He also served as Director of the DoD Reuse Initiative and Chief of the Ada Joint Program Office. Previously, while with TRW, Mr. Reifer served as Deputy Program Manager for their Global Positioning Satellite (GPS) efforts. While with the Aerospace Corporation, Mr. Reifer managed all of the software efforts related to the Space Transportation System (Space Shuttle). Currently, as President of RCI, Mr. Reifer advises executives in Fortune 500 firms worldwide in the areas of software investment and improvement strategies. He is known for both his business and practical problem solving skills.
During the past thirty years, Reifer has published over one hundred software engineering and management papers and five books. Reifer’s many awards include the Secretary of Defense’s Medal for Outstanding Public Service, the NASA Exceptional Service Medal, the AIAA Software Engineering Award, the ISPA Frieman Award, the DISA Service Award, membership in Who’s Who in the West, and the Hughes Aircraft Company Fellowship.
Reifer received his B.S. in engineering from New Jersey Institute of Technology, his M.S. in operations research from USC and the Certificate in Business Management from UCLA.

Jill Ann Allen
U.S. Army
Ms. Allen is an Operations Research Analyst within the U.S. Army Aviation and Missile Command (AMCOM) Command Analysis Directorate (CAD) and the Army Aviation and Missile Research, Development and Engineering Command (AMRDEC) Software Engineering Directorate (SED) at Redstone Arsenal in Huntsville, Alabama. She provides support to various U.S. Army major acquisition programs and Missile Defense Agency (MDA) programs in the area of software cost estimation. Ms. Allen performs software cost research, analysis and estimation and serves as the lead for a number of cost studies. Previously, she worked as a software developer within the NASA Technical Standards Program Office located at Marshall Space Flight Center.
Ms. Allen earned a B.S. in Computer Science and a B.S. in Mathematics from Athens State University and an M.S. in Applied Computer Science from Kennesaw State University. She is Level 3 Certified in Business Cost Estimating and Financial Management.

Brian Fersch
U.S. Air Force
Mr. Fersch is currently the Chief of the Acquisition Cost Research, Studies, and Training branch at the Air Force Electronics Systems Center (ESC). He is responsible for leading ESC cost research efforts, coordinating acquisition cost studies, and developing training for the cost workforce. He is also the ESC lead for collaborative cost research efforts across Department of Defense (DoD). Previously, Mr. Fersch served with the Air Force Cost Analysis Agency (AFCAA), the Office of The Deputy Assistant Secretary of the Army for Cost and Economics (ODASA-CE) and as a defense contractor supporting the Secretary of Defense’s Business Initiatives Council. Prior to his work with the DoD, Mr. Fersch ran a startup Internet Services Provider (ISP) that pioneered commercial wireless IP based networking technology. Mr. Fersch has been recognized as the AFCAA Acquisition Cost Analyst of the Year, and by the Secretary of the Army and Under Secretary of Defense (AT&L) in 2004 for his efforts facilitating business transformation across DoD.
Mr. Fersch received his B.S. from Virginia Tech, his MBA from the University of Maryland and is expecting to start studies at the Air War College in the near-term.

Barbara Hitchings
Ms. Hitchings is a senior analyst with SAIC and has been doing cost research, analysis and estimation for many years as a contractor for the Army, Navy, Air Force, and NASA. Currently she is located in Huntsville, Alabama and does software cost estimation and analysis for the Army Aviation and Missile Research, Development, and Engineering Command (AMRDEC) Software Engineering Directorate (SED) at Redstone Arsenal.
Ms. Hitchings received her B.S. in Physics from the University of Maine. She has done graduate studies at both the University of Maine and San Diego State.

James Judy
Office of Deputy Assistant Secretary of the Army (Cost and Economics)
Mr. James Judy is the Chief of the Networks, Information, Software and Electronics Costing Division within the Office of the Deputy Assistant Secretary of the Army (Cost & Economics). His division is responsible for the life cycle costing of the Army’s major acquisition programs to include Command and Control, Communications, Computers, Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance (C4ISR), Major Automated Information Systems (MAIS) and software intensive programs. Mr. Judy is a retired Army officer with twenty-two years of service alternating assignments as an Army Logistician and an Operations Research/Systems Analyst.
Mr. Judy is a graduate of the United States Military Academy where he earned his B.S. with a Concentration in Computer Science. He received his M.S. in Operations Research from the Naval Postgraduate School in Monterey, California and is a Level 3 Certified in Business Cost Estimating and Financial Management.

Wilson Rosa
Air Force Cost Analysis Agency
Wilson Rosa is a Technical Advisor with the Information Technology Division of the Air Force Cost Analysis Agency (AFCAA). Prior to joining AFCAA, Mr. Rosa worked at the Naval Sea Systems Command as a General Engineer where he was responsible for analyzing numerous major acquisition programs including Remote Mine Hunting System, Standard Missile Block IV, Cobra Judy Replacement, Naval Fires Network, and Area Air Defense Commander. Mr Rosa also spent 2 years with the Naval Air Warfare Center (NAWC) as an Industrial Engineer. At NAWC, he prepared multiple budget requests and cost analyses for the V‐22 Osprey and T‐45 Goshawk project offices. Before joining NAWC, Mr. Rosa was an Engineering Director with Caguas Medical Center (Puerto Rico) where he was responsible for the safety, daily operations, and modernization of 13 regional hospitals.
Throughout his financial management career, Mr. Rosa has received numerous awards and accolades to include 2006 Civilian Cost Analyst of the Year, 2003 Comptroller Excellence Award from the Assistant Secretary of the Air Force (SAF/FM), 2000 Procurement and Competition Excellence Award from the Assistant Secretary of the Navy (ASN/RDA), 2008 Comptroller Eagle Award, and 2003 Runner‐Up Civilian Cost Analyst of the Year from the American Society of Military Comptrollers.
Mr. Rosa has recently earned his PhD in Engineering Management at George Washington University
(GWU). In 2001, he earned his M.S. in Engineering Management from GWU. He majored in Mechanical Engineering, graduating in 1995 from the University of Puerto Rico.