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Initial Results Building a Normalized Software Database using SRDRS

Software & IT

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The Software Resource Data Report provides DoD cost analysts with a primary source of comprehensive, objective, and model-independent sizing, effort and schedule data on large DoD software programs. The SRDR does not rely on rigid, standardized data fields for collecting software effort and sizing information (a feature advocated by Government, industry, and academia during the design of the SRDR). This flexibility lessens the reporting burden placed on industry and reduces ‘data synthesis’ errors.
Consequently, this flexibility creates the need for developing and using sound techniques for analyzing and interpreting, and ultimately normalizing data from multiple DoD weapon system contractors, each whom use different terms and definitions for software sizing and effort.
This need for sound techniques to normalize software data from multiple developers will become more critical as the amount of data available to DoD analysts from SRDRs grows over the next decade. Analysts must properly analyze, interpret, and, ultimately, normalize the data before drawing any ‘industry-average’ conclusions such as average productivity.
This presentation updates our investigation for the Deputy Assistant Secretary of the Army- Cost and Economics on the methods and techniques for building a normalized software database. We used SRDRs, supplemented with data separately collected for the Army. We believe these techniques discussed in this presentation can serve as a basis of best practices for analyzing SRDR data (and other data collected separately) in the future. Our presentation discusses (1) the analytical approach, (2) problems we encountered with the data (3) results of our analysis (4) a summarized and sanitized view of the normalized data and (5) recommendations for building a sound software industry- average database.


Michael Gallo
Mike Gallo, a Vice President at Technomics, has spent most of his 17-year career working with software intensive weapon systems, automated information systems and intelligence systems. Mr. Gallo is the principal architect of VERA, Technomics’ software cost and schedule estimating tool. In his continuing technical duties, Mr. Gallo continues to: 1) conduct research into improved techniques for estimating software development costs and 2) advocate better software data collection.. He lead the update of both the design and documentation of DoD’s Software Resource Data Report and provided his expertise to train both Government and industry on how to report software data using the new SRDR. He also participated in efforts to improve cost reporting for automated information systems including recent work on a draft standard for ERP systems.
Prior to joining Technomics in June 2000, Mr. Gallo was a senior cost analyst at TASC where he was responsible for managing, developing, and integrating life cycle cost estimates of software intensive systems in both DoD and the Intelligence community.
During his five-year tenure at the Naval Center for Cost Analysis, Mr. Gallo was a contributing author of the Navy Software Estimating Handbook. Mr. Gallo was also responsible for developing independent life cycle cost estimates and economic analyses on various Navy and Marine Corps systems. He holds both a Master of Engineering degree and Bachelor of Science degree in Industrial Engineering from the State University of New York at Buffalo.

Paul Hardin
Paul Hardin is presently employed as Technical Director with Technomics, Inc. Mr. Hardin’s principal areas of expertise are methodology design and model development, including expert application of non-linear optimization techniques. Over the last several years, he has developed improved, innovative methodologies for high risk non-recurring acquisition cost elements (e.g., design engineering, software development and integration) and operating and support (O&S) cost elements. Mr. Hardin has played a key role in the development of two Navy cost tools, Operating and Support Cost Analysis Model (OSCAM) and Navy Visibility and Management of Operating and Support Cost (VAMOSC) VIEWS. Prior to accepting a position with Technomics, Mr. Hardin worked for the Office of the Secretary of Defense (OSD), Cost Analysis Improvement Group
(CAIG) and the Naval Center for Cost Analysis (NCCA). Mr. Hardin graduated from the Georgia Institute of Technology with a Bachelor’s degree in Industrial Engineering in 1991 and received a Master’s degree in Systems Engineering from Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University in May 1999.

Elizabeth Koza
Elizabeth Koza is a Cost Analyst at Technomics, Inc. Since joining Technomics in December 2005, she has focused on software development and integration cost estimating. She has participated in research projects focusing on improving software data collection quality and cost estimating techniques. In addition, Ms. Koza has applied her software and integration knowledge by supporting various Navy acquisition programs. Most recently, she was part of a team responsible for developing and updating the software and integration portion of the Littoral Combat Ship (LCS) Program Life Cycle Cost Estimate (PLCCE).
Ms. Koza started her cost analysis career in July 2000 as a Cost Analyst for the Naval Surface Warfare Center (NSWC) Carderock Division, where developed cost estimating methodologies and estimates for several Navy programs. While supporting the Ohio Class SSGN Conversion Program, Ms. Koza worked onsite at the Naval Sea Systems Command Cost Engineering and Industrial Analysis Division (NAVSEA 05C).
Ms. Koza earned her Masters of Engineering degree in Systems Engineering from the University of Maryland and her Bachelors of Science degree in Mechanical Engineering from the Johns Hopkins University.

Robert Bailey
Robert Bailey is a senior cost analyst at Technomics, Inc. with ten years experience providing cost analysis services (Life Cycle Cost Estimates, Analysis of Alternatives, and Business Case Analysis). Most of his work experience is with software intensive information technology and surveillance systems.
Prior to joining Technomics in July 2008, Mr. Bailey was a lead economic business analyst at The MITRE Corp. where he gained significant experience developing system requirements and cost estimates for data processing facilities and data networks supporting surveillance systems. Prior to joining MITRE, Mr. Bailey served 4 years in the U.S. Army as an artillery officer.
Mr. Bailey holds a M.A. degree in Economics from Johns Hopkins University and a Bachelors of Science degree in Business Administration from Longwood College. In addition, Mr. Bailey is a degree candidate student at Johns Hopkins University working towards a M.S. degree in Computer Science.