2012-LCC12

Preliminary Study of Palm-Oil Biodiesel Life Cycle Cost Analysis in Indonesia

Life Cycle Cost Track

LCC12_Paper_PreliminaryStudyofPalmOilDiodieselLifeCycleCostAnalysisinIndonesia_Sahirman

Abstract:

Recently, Biodiesel have been gaining popularity and getting accepted as an alternative fuel for diesel engines. In the last few years, Indonesian government has a special interest in the development of this renewable energy, the use of which can help reduce oil imports. Biodiesel has a bright future in this country, as Indonesia is the world’s largest producer of crude palm oil (CPO) – a desirable feedstock for biodiesel production. Biodiesel has the potential to become a significant industry sector in Indonesia.

The use of Biodiesel as a replacement for fossil-based diesel has a significant potential advantage to reduce dependency on conventional fuels. The limited current production of biodiesel is mostly due to the cost associated with the production. Hence, the cost performance of biodiesel needs to be improved to increase its competitiveness against fossil-based diesel.

As a new renewable energy alternative, it is required to have an approach to compare biodiesel with the conventional one in economic terms. Life cycle cost analysis is the right tool, which also can help identify the key areas in biodiesel production cycle where changes are required to improve its cost performance.

This study aims to assess the economics of biodiesel as an alternative transportation fuel for diesel vehicles in Indonesia based on life cycle approach. The scope of the study includes the palm cultivation/processing, the conversion to biodiesel, the distribution of the fuel, and all transportation activities taking place within the system boundary. This paper presents a preliminary model of Palm-Oil Biodiesel Life Cycle Cost and the on-going activities to achieve the ultimate goals.

Author(s):

Sidharta Sahirman, Ph.D
Jenderal Soedirman University
EDUCATIONAL BACKGROUND
2000 Master of Science of Industrial Engineering
University of Pittsburgh USA
Industrial Engineering
2009 Doctor of Philosophy
West Virginia University USA
Industrial and Management System Engineering

SCIENTIFIC ARTICLES
A. Selected Journal Articles
201, Life Cycle Cost Estimator as a Decision Tool for Bridge Deck Selections. The Journal of Management and Engineering Integration (JMEI)

B. Selected Conference Papers
2010,Estimating Life-cycle Cost of West Virginia Fiber Reinfornced Polymer (FRP) Bridge
Decks. Award Winning Paper. SCEA/ISPA International Joint Conference, San Diego, USA
2008,FRP Bridge Deck Life Cycle Cost Analyzer. Life Cycle Civil Engineering International Conference, Italy
2005,Preliminary Study of Life Cycle Cost Model for Fiber Reinforced Polymer Bridge Deck. Life Cycle Cost Conference (LCC4), Cocoa Beach, USA
2004, Genetic Algorithm for Neural Network Optimization. SPIE International Conference Philadelphia, USA
2003, Economic Feasibility Analysis of FRP Bridge Deck. IIE Conference, Portland, Oregon, USA
2003, Evaluation of the Economic Feasibility of Fiber Reinforced Polymer (FRP) Bridge Decks. Award Winning Paper. SCEA/ISPA International Joint Conference, San Diego, USA
2002, Neural Network for Cost Estimation. AACE International Conference, Portland, Oregon, USA

AWARDS
Juni, 2003. Best Paper Award. Methods Track. International Joint Conference, Orlando, Florida. USA.SCEA (The Society of Cost Estimating and Analysis) / ISPA (The International Society of Parametric Analysts)
Juni, 2010. Best Paper Award. Life-cycle Cost Track. International Joint Conference, San Diego, California. USA. SCEA (The Society of Cost Estimating and Analysis) / ISPA (The International Society of Parametric Analysts)

Dr. Ir. Saparso, MP
Jenderal Soedirman University
EDUCATIONAL BACKGROUND
1986. Bachelor.
Gadjah Mada University, Indonesia.
Agriculture (Agronomy)
2001. Master of Science.
Gadjah Mada University, Indonesia.
Agriculture (Agronomy)
2008. Doctorate.
Gadjah Mada University, Indonesia.
Agriculture (Agronomy)

SCIENTIFIC JOURNAL ARTICLES
2008 Optimalisasi Produktivitas Kubis Bawah Naungan Melalui Pemberian Lapisan Kedap Bentonit 12 (1). April 2008. Agrin
2009 Karakterisasi Berbagai Jenis Lapisan Kedap, Ketebalan dan Nisbah Bentonit Dengan Pasir: Konsep Dasar Pengelolaan Lahan Pasir Pantai . Mei 2009. Jurnal Tanah Tropika, UNILA
2008 Anasir Lingkungan Penentu Kesinambungan Produksi Tanaman Kubis di Lahan Pasir Pantai 2008, Puslitbang Hortikultura. Jurnal Hortikulktura
2008 Manipulasi Nisbah dan Ketebalan Lapisan Bentonit, Upaya Optimalisasi Produktivitas Tanaman Kubis dalam Media Tanah Pasir Pantai. Agrivita 2008.
2002 Serapan Nitrogen Tanaman Kubis pada Berbagai Kombinasi Mulsa dan Dosis Pemupukan Nitrogen di Lahan Pasir Pantai Vol 6 No.12, April 2002. AGRIN.
2002 Penguatan Ketahanan Pangan Pedesaan Melalui Pemberdayaan Tanaman Legum dalam Meningkatkan Produktivitas Padi Gogo Vol 2 No. 2, 2002 Lemlit UNSOED. Jurnal Pembangunan Pedesaan
2003 Pengembangan Tanaman Kubis di Lahan Pasir Pantai:Pertumbuhan Tanaman pada Berbagai Kombinasi Mulsa dan Cara Pemupukan Nitrogen Vol 7 No. 2, 2003. AGRIN
2004 Tanggap Varietas Cabai Terhadap Interval Pemupukan Nitrogen pada Tanah Pasir Pantai Vol. 4 No. 1, 2004 AGRonomika
2004 Tanggap Beberapa Varietas Cabai terhadap Dosis Bahan Pembenah Tanah dan Interval Pemupukan Nitrogen Tanah Pasir Pantai Vol 4 No.1, 2004. Jurnal Pembangunan Pedesaan

Agus Sarjito
Jenderal Soedirman University
EDUCATIONAL BACKGROUND:
– 1986. Bachelor. Jenderal Soedirman University. Agronomy.
– 2000. Master of Science. Bogor Agricultural University. Information Technology for Natural Resources
JOURNAL ARTICLES:
– 2007 Sarjito, A dan B. Hartanto., 2007. Respon Tanaman Jagung terhadap Aplikasi Pupuk N dan Penyisipan Tanaman Kedelai Vol 11 No 2: 130 – 137, Jurnal Agrin
– 2007 Agustono, T. dan A. Sarjito. 2007. Pertumbuhan dan Hasil Baby Corn pada Berbagai Dosis N dan Periode Bebas Gulma. Vol 11 No 2: 25 – 35, Jurnal Agrin
– 2005 Sarjito, A. 2005. Laju Fotosintesis, Serapan N, dan Hasil Tiga Varietas Kedelai pada Sistem Tumpangsari Jagung-Kedelai Vol. 8. No.2: 78 – 86, Jurnal Agrin
– 2003 Saparso dan Agus Sarjito, 2003. Tanggap Varietas Cabai Terhadap Interval Pemupukan Nitrogen Pada Tanah Pasir Pantai. Vol. 4 No. 1: 41 – 48, Jurnal Agronomika
– 2001 Spatial Distribution of Green-House Gas from Agriculture Sector in Indonesia based on Inter-Govermental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Using Geographic Information System and Internet Technologies. Vol I : 55 – 70, Journal of GIS, Remote Sensing and Dynamic Modelling

Mokhtar Awang, PhD
Universiti Teknologi Petronas
Qualifications:
Ph.D. in Mechanical Engineering, West Virginia University, WV, USA (2007).
M.Sc. in Mechanical Engineering, West Virginia University, WV, USA (2003).
B.Sc. in Mechanical Engineering, University of Detroit Mercy, MI, USA (1994).

Employment History:
Senior Lecturer, Mechanical Engineering Department, UTP (06/2008 – present)
Supervise 4 post graduate students – 1 PhD, 3 MSc
– Numerical and Experimental Studies on Predicting Mechanical Properties of CNT/Polypropylene Nanocomposite – PhD
– Thermal and Material Flow Modeling during Friction Stir Welding of Dissimilar Plates – MSc
– Micro-structural Study of Metal Matrix Composite Friction Stir Welded Plates – MSc
– Thermomechanical Modeling of Cutting Process using Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian Method – MSc
Graduate Research Assistant, MAE Dept./WVU (08/2005-06/2007)
Human head response to impact research using LS-Dyna software.
Study the relationship between FE responses and location of injury.
Graduate Teaching Assistant, MAE dept./WVU (08/2003-05/2005)
Assist CAD/Finite Element Analysiss instructor during lab session.
Grade students assignments and projects.
Summer Internship at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). TN, USA (06/2004 – 09/2004)
Developed a framework of finite element modeling of friction stir spot welding process.
Conduct some experiments on friction stir spot welding.
Graduate Research Assistant, MAE dept./WVU (01/2001- 06/2002)
Parametric study of curved beam for Maglev project.
QC Engineer at Malex Manufacturing (M) Sdn. Bhd., Kedah, Malaysia (07/1998 – 07/2000)
Oversee product quality and ISO standards.
Lead internal audit for the company.
Appointed as a company representative.
Service Engineer at WH-Kurita Sdn. Bhd., Terengganu, Malaysia (01/1997- 06/1998)
Oversee boiler and cooling water treatment program at various industries.
Provide training to clients
Mechanical Engineer at Protek Engineers Sdn. Bhd., Terengganu, Malaysia (04/1996 – 12/1997)
Design piping system for oil and gas industry.
Automation Engineer at Intel Technology Sdn. Bhd., Penang, Malaysia (01/1995 – 03/1996) Upgrade and automate machines at production lines.

PUBLICATIONS:
Energy Generation during Friction Stir Spot Welding (FSSW) of Al 6061-T6 Plates Awang, Mokhtar and Mucino, Victor H., Materials and Manufacturing Processes, vol. 25. pp. 167-174. ISSN 1042-6914, 2010.
Predicting the Youngs Modulus of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes (SWCNTs) using Finite Element Modeling, E., Mohammadpour; M., Awang, M. Z., Abdullah, Journal of Applied Sciences, 2011, ISSN 1812-5654.
Stress Analysis on Sialon/Ferritic Stainless Steel Joint, C. S., Hassan; P., Hussain, M., Awang, Journal of Applied Sciences, 2011, ISSN 1812-5654.
Experience on Friction Stir Welding (FSW) and Friction Stir Spot Welding (FSSW) at Universiti Teknologi Petronas, M., Awang, I. M., Ahmat, P., Hussain, Journal of Applied Sciences, 2011, ISSN 1812-5654.
Thermo-Mechanical Modeling of Friction Stir Spot Welding (FSSW), M. Awang, V. H. Mucino, Z. Feng, and S. A. David. Proceedings of SAE 2006 World Congress & Exhibition, Detroit, MI, April 2006.
Use of ANN to Simulate the Effects of Welding Process Parameters in Curved Steel Plates: Residual Stresses, Strains and Distortions, R. L. Klein, P. Klinkhachorn, V. H. Mucino, M. Awang. Proceedings of 35th Southeastern Symposium on System Theory (SSST), Morgantown, WV, March 2003.

Dr. Ir. Shaharin Anwar Sulaiman
Universiti Teknologi Petronas
QUALIFICATIONS
– PhD in Combustion, School of Engineering, University of Leeds, UK
– MSc in Thermal Power and Fluids Engineering, UMIST, UK
– B.Sc. in Mechanical Engineering, Iowa State University, USA
– American Associate Degree, Maktab Sains MARA, Kuantan, Malaysia

WORK EXPERIENCE
Syarikat Pembenaan Yeoh Tiong Lay (YTL): 1 June 1994 15 December 1998 (M&E services installation)
Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS: 1 December 1998 present

PROFESSIONAL AFFLIATIONS
1. Professional Engineer, Board of Engineers Malaysia (BEM), since 29 Jan. 2003, Membership No 11448.
2. Corporate Member, Institution of Engineers, Malaysia (IEM), since 15 July 2002.
3. Committee Member, Rotating Equipment Community of Practice (ReCOP), Group Technology Solution of PETRONAS, 2008 – present.
4. Member, American Society for Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers Inc. (ASHRAE), since 1 April 2010
5. Member, Malaysian Energy Professionals Association (MEPA), since 6 April 2010.

BOOK
Arazi Idrus, Shaharin A. Sulaiman, Mohd Faris Khamidi, Engineers in Society, McGraw-Hill (Malaysia) ISBN: 978-983-3850-71-6, 2010.

MOST RECENT PAPER PUBLICATIONS
1. S. A. Sulaiman, S. H. M. Murad, I. Ibrahim, and Z. A. Abdul Karim, Study of Flow in Air-Intake System for a Single-Cylinder Go-Kart Engine, International Journal of Automotive and Mechanical Engineering (IJAME) ISSN: 1985-9325(Print); ISSN: 2180-1606 (Online) Volume 1, pp. 91-104, January 2010.
2. S. A. Sulaiman and A. H. Hassan, Analysis of Annual Cooling Energy Requirements for Glazed Academic Buildings, 2nd International Conference on Plant Equipment and Reliability (ICPER), Kuala Lumpur, June 2010.
3. S. A. Sulaiman, S. C. Basil, N. S. Dunggatt and M. H. M. Hashim, Automated Calculations for Improvement of Tank Inventory at Fuel Terminals, 2nd International Conference on Plant Equipment and Reliability (ICPER), Kuala Lumpur, June 2010.
4. S. A. Sulaiman and S. E. Jamaludin, A Study on the Use of Orifice Plates as Steam Traps, 2nd International Conference on Plant Equipment and Reliability (ICPER), Kuala Lumpur, June 2010.
5. S. A. Sulaiman, F. H. Tambi and M. F. Khamidi, Reduction of Cooling Energy for Highly Glazed Buildings in Malaysia through Scheduled Start-up and Shutdown of Air-Conditioners, 5th International Ege Energy Symposium and Exhibition, Denizli, Turkey, June 2010.
6. S. A. Sulaiman, S. Balamohan, M N. Z Moni, S. A. Mekbib and A. O. Mohamed, Study on the Feasibility of Oil Palm-Fronds for Biomass Gasification, 5th International Ege Energy Symposium and Exhibition, Denizli, Turkey, June 2010.
7. I. Ibrahim, A. Abdul Jalil, and S. A. Sulaiman, Study of The Effect of EFI to the Carburetted Single Cylinder Four Stroke Engine, Journal of Mechanical Engineering, JMechE, Vol 7/2, December 2010.
8. S. M. Atnaw, S. A. Sulaiman and S. Yusup, A Simulation Study of Downdraft Gasification of Oil-Palm Fronds Using ASPEN PLUS, Journal of Applied Sciences, (in press) 2011.
9. S. Wasiu, S. A. Sulaiman and A R. A. Aziz, Effects of Varying EGR Rates on the Nitric Oxide (NO) Emissions, Journal of Applied Sciences, (in press) 2011.
10. S. A. Sulaiman, S. C. Basil, N. S. Dunggatt and M. H. M. Hashim, Automated Calculations for Improvement of Tank Inventory at Fuel Terminals, Journal of Applied Sciences, (in press) 2011.
11. S. A. Sulaiman and A. H. Hassan, Analysis of Annual Cooling Energy Requirements for Glazed Academic Buildings, Journal of Applied Sciences, in press, Journal of Applied Sciences, (in press) 2011.